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The Indus Valley Civilization

The world is a treasure trove of ancient civilizations, each making a unique contribution to human history. Among them, the Indus Valley Civilization is one of the oldest and most enigmatic.

But what is this forgotten civilization, so little known today, but nevertheless coexisted with the Mesopotamians or even the Egyptians of Antiquity?

Indus Valley Civilization Map

Flourishing more than 4,500 years ago in what is now Pakistan and northwest India, this ancient civilization features remarkable urban planning, advanced engineering and a rich cultural heritage. In this article, we delve into the secrets of the Indus Valley Civilization, shedding light on its impressive achievements and the mysteries that continue to captivate archaeologists and historians to this day.

The Indus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harappan Civilization, takes its name from the mighty Indus River that runs through its heart.

Discovered in the 1920s, the remains of cities like Harappa and Mohenjo Daro offer a glimpse of a highly organized and advanced society. Spanning an area of ​​more than 1.25 million square kilometers, this once-thriving civilization spanned the territories of present-day Pakistan, India, and part of Afghanistan.

At a time when most civilizations were primarily rural, the Indus Valley Civilization had sophisticated urban centers.

Indus Valley Civilization cities

The towns of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro , in particular, had a high degree of urban planning. With well-laid grid networks, complex drainage systems and multi-story houses, these ancient cities demonstrated an impressive level of urban planning.

The Indus Valley Civilization demonstrated remarkable technological advances for its time.
The townspeople had knowledge of metallurgy, with copper and bronze being commonly used. Handmade pottery and seals with distinct script, known as the Indus script, have been unearthed, although their decipherment remains an unsolved mystery. The presence of weights and measures suggests the existence of a standardized system of trade and commerce, which highlights their business acumen.

Based on archaeological findings, it is believed that the Indus Valley Civilization had a well-structured society.
The towns were organized around a citadel, supposed to be the administrative and religious center. Society seemed fairly egalitarian, with no obvious evidence of palaces or grandiose structures indicating the existence of a ruling elite. Agriculture played a vital role in their economy, with evidence of well-planned irrigation systems, cultivation of crops, and domestication of animals.

The artistic and cultural heritage of the Indus Valley Civilization was rich and varied.
Mohenjo Daro sculpture
Intricate jewelry, terracotta figurines, and sculptures of men and animals bear witness to their artistic prowess. The famous statue of the "dancer", discovered in Mohenjo-daro, testifies to their know-how in bronze casting. The presence of public baths, attics and public buildings testifies to the importance given to community living and collective facilities.

One of the most enduring mysteries of the Indus Valley Civilization is its writing, which remains undeciphered to this day.

Pashupati seal, Indus Valley Civilization

Thousands of inscriptions have been discovered, but with no bilingual text, researchers have been unable to crack the code. Deciphering the script would offer invaluable insights into language, literature, and the social, political, and economic aspects of civilization.

Then, from 1900 BC. JC, without really knowing why, the Indus Valley civilization began its decline until completely abandoning these cities a few centuries later (several hypotheses exist such as climate change or natural disasters without the 'we're really sure of that).

The Indus Valley Civilization therefore remains an intriguing enigma that captivates the minds of researchers and historians across the world.

With its sophisticated urban planning, technological advances and vibrant culture, this ancient civilization is a testament to humanity's ingenuity and resilience. As archaeologists continue to make new discoveries and advance research, the veil of mystery surrounding the Indus Valley Civilization is gradually being lifted, allowing us to better understand our past. common.

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Clothing Indus Valley Civilization